Batik design or the creation of batik, can be divided into the three main types of batik, namely "batik tulis", "batik cap" and "batik ikat". Each has variations in techniques and the level of expertise needed, and thus reflect a different kind of design creativity.Batik design centres of the past include the cities of Lasem, Cirebon, Solo, Banyumas and Pekalongan on Java, and the states of Kelantan and Terengganu in the Malay Peninsular. The batik from different cities usually carry with it their own distinct identity and style and are often easily recognizable. These days, Kuala Lumpur and Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia and the capital of Jakarta are also important sources of batik designs. Batik design draw from a huge variety of motifs culled from both the old and new ideas. The rich, old motifs of batik are an incredible archive of cultural expressions, while new motifs are unrestrained, stretches creativity and has a higher inclination to the artisan's own individuality.
Speaking of traditional batik designs found in Malaysian and Indonesian batik, here's a list of some of the popular motifs:
Pucuk rebung (bamboo shoots), Bunga raya (hibiscus), Daun sirih (betelnut leaves), Sirih mas (golden betelnut), Bunga tanjung (cape flower), Parang rusak (damaged blade or knife, this pattern was once exclusive to Javanese royal families), Mega mendung (a type of cloud pattern). *)
Types and Variations of Batik **)
Javanese kraton (court) Batik is the oldest batik tradition known in Java. Also known as Batik Pedalaman (inland batik) in contrast with Batik Pesisiran (coastal batik). This type of batik has earthy color tones such as black, brown, and dark yellow (sogan), sometimes against a white background. The motifs of traditional court batik have symbolic meanings. Some designs are restricted: larger motifs can only be worn by royalty; and certain motifs are not suitable for women, or for specific occasions (e.g., weddings).
The palace courts (keratonan) in two cities in central Java are known for preserving and fostering batik traditions:
- Surakarta (Solo City) Batik. Traditional Surakarta court batik is preserved and fostered by the Susuhunan and Mangkunegaran courts. The main areas that produce Solo batik are the Laweyan and Kauman districts of the city. Solo batik typically has sogan as the background color. Pasar Klewer near the Susuhunan palace is a retail trade center.
- Yogyakarta Batik. Traditional Yogya batik is preserved and fostered by the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Pakualaman court. Usually Yogya Batik has white as the background color. Fine batik is produced at Kampung Taman district. Beringharjo market near Malioboro street is well known as a retail batik trade center in Yogyakarta.
Pesisir Batik (Coastal Batik)
Pesisir batik is created and produced by several areas on the northern coast of Java and on Madura. As a consequence of maritime trading, the Pesisir batik tradition was more open to foreign influences in textile design, coloring, and motifs, in contrast to inland batik, which was relatively independent of outside influences. For example, Pesisir batik utilizes vivid colors and Chinese motifs such as clouds, phoenix, dragon, qilin, lotus, peony, and floral patterns.
- Pekalongan Batik. The most famous Pesisir Batik production area is the town of Pekalongan in Central Java province. Compared to other pesisir batik production centers, the batik production houses in this town is the most thriving. Batik Pekalongan was influenced by both Dutch-European and Chinese motifs, for example the buketan motifs was influenced by European flower bouquet.
- Cirebon Batik. Also known as Trusmi Batik because that is the primary production area. The most well known Cirebon batik motif is megamendung (rain cloud) that was used in the former Cirebon Kraton. This cloud motif shows Chinese influence.
- Lasem Batik. Lasem batik is characterized by a bright red color called abang getih pithik (chicken blood red). Batik Lasem is heavily influenced by Chinese culture.
- Tuban Batik. Batik gedog is the speciality of Tuban Batik, the batik was created from handmade tenun (woven) fabrics.
- Madura Batik. Madurese Batik displays vibrant colors, such as yellow, red, and green. Madura unique motifs for example pucuk tombak (spear tips), also various flora and fauna images.
If you want to see a collection of batik please click at pages Materials Batik.